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Product Name:
A Description of Convective Weather Containing Ice Crystals Associated with Engine Power loss and Damage
Additional Info:

‡This presentation is intended to enhance pilots’awareness of ice crystal icing conditions where engine events have occurred. ‡High altitude ice crystals in convective weather have been recently recognized to be a cause of engine power loss and engine damage. ‡The term “icing conditions” has always been used to refer to conditions where supercooled liquid drops adhere to airframe surfaces –typically altitudes 22,000 feet and below ‡“Ice crystal icing”does not affect cold airframe surfaces, only engine surfaces. ‡Traditional thunderstorm avoidance procedures may help avoid ice crystals, but… ‡It is not practical to avoid all ice crystal conditions, as the particles may not be detected by aviation radar ‡There are clues to watch for to recognize these crystal icing conditions

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Accumulated Stress
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Stress cannot be avoided, and the right amount of stress is considered beneficial; it helps people stay alert, focused on the task at hand and interested in the world around them.

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Air It Out
Additional Info:

For many years, pilots and cabin crew have complained about the air quality on the flight deck and the cabin.

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Airbus Braking Recommendations
Additional Info:

Summary of Braking Recommendations in the SOP

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Airbus Go-Around Essentials
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Go-around: an essential safety manoeuvre for all pilots. However, we have seen several examples where a safe go-around was not achieved so we must review the go-around…We regularly practiced in the simulator but often with engine failure and often from minima.

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Aircraft Energy Management During Approach
Additional Info:

Approximately 70 % of rushed and unstable approaches involve an incorrect management of the aircraft energy level, resulting in an excess or deficit of energy, as follows: Being slow and/or low on approach : 40 % of events; Being fast and/or high on approach: 30 % of events.

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Aircraft Icing
Additional Info:

The aircraft was on a night mail flight with an en-route stop at Cleveland. Moderate rime icing between 7000 feet and the surface had been reported so the crew probably used anti-icing for the approach. The aircraft stood in dry blowing snow for the 35 minutes that it was on the ground. Failing snow melted on the initially hot wings before refreezing as the wings cooled to below freezing. As more snow fell onto this ice layer it was also frozen and formed a thin rough layer of "sand paper" ice which the crew were unlikely to have seen even if they had done a walkaround - they did not leave the aircraft.

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Airplane Upset Recovery by Airbus
Additional Info:

The issue of upset training was not new; major airlines around the world, and in particular in the USA, had already produced Upset Recovery Training Programmes, or were using one produced by another company.

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Airplane Upset Recovery by Boeing (Part 1)
Additional Info:

Airplane manufacturers, airlines, pilot associations, flight training organizations, and government and regulatory agencies have developed this training resource. The training package consists of this document and a supporting video. It is dedicated to reducing the number of accidents caused by the loss of control of large, swept-wing airplanes that results from airplane upset. Airplane upset is defined as an airplane in flight unintentionally exceeding the parameters normally experienced in line operations or training.

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Airplane Upset Recovery by Boeing (Part 2)
Additional Info:

Upsets have been attributed to environment, equipment, and pilot factors. The data also suggest that pilots need to be better prepared to cope with airplane upsets. Research by operators has indicated that most airline pilots rarely experience airplane upsets, and many have never been trained in maximum performance maneuvers.

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An Overview of NASA Engine Ice-Crystal Icing Research
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Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) program plays a key part in helping NASA maintain this important role.

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Analysis of Crew Conversations Provides Insights for Accident Investigation
Additional Info:

Following the investigation of a controlled-flight into-terrain (CFIT) accident involving an Israel Aircraft Industries Westwind 1124 jet aircraft, which struck terrain near Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia, on April 27, 1995, the Bureau of Air Safety Investigation (BASI, which became part of the newly formed multi-modal Australian Transport Safety Bureau [ATSB] in 1999) evaluated available methods to analyze recorded voice communications.

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Antidepressants in Aviation
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Researchers found that pilots who took prescribed antidepressants were no more likely than others to be involved in accidents and incidents. Read this for some really good facts.

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Approach and landing Risk Reduction Guide
Additional Info:

Part 1 of this guide should be used by the chief pilot to review flight operations policies and training. Part 2 should be used by dispatchers and schedulers. The chief pilot should provide Part 3 to flight crews for evaluating pilot understanding of company training objectives and policies. Part 4 should be used by the chief pilot and line pilots.

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Approach Hazards Awareness
Additional Info:

Approach-and-landing is the most hazardous phase of any flight, as illustrated by the following data. Over the past 40 years, approach-and-landing accidents accounted for 55 % of total hull losses. This statistic does not show a downward trend. The flight segment from the outer marker to the runway threshold averages only 4 % of flight time, but accounts for 45 % of hull losses.

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Attitude Adjustment
Additional Info:

Great read by some professionals!

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Autoland on Contaminated Runways
Additional Info:

Want to learn more about Autoland on Contaminated Runways? Take a look!

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Avoiding Altitude Deviations
Additional Info:

On a cloudy winter morning, a Boeing 727 was being radar vectored for approach and landing at O’Hare International Airport, Chicago, Illinois, U.S. The crew acknowledged a descent clearance to 7,000 feet (2,134 meters), followed by the controller’s immediate exclamation, “Maintain 8,000 feet [2,438 meters] — I have an altitude bust!”

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Avoiding Convective Weather Linked to Ice-Crystal Icing
Additional Info:

This article provides detailed information about the convective weather associated with engine-power-loss events and recommendations on how to increase pilots’ awareness of this weather and help them avoid conditions that can result in power loss.

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Avoiding Tailstrikes by Airbus
Additional Info:

Most Common Causes Most Common Causes: At takeoff „Excessive rotation rate –Increasing rotation rate, rotation in two steps „Premature rotation – VRcomputation error „Over-rotation „Improper use of FD pitch command bar –Aggressive rotation into FD pitch bar „Improper pitch trim setting „Rotation with large roll input „Improper shock absorber servicing „Turbulence, wind shear/downburst.

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Avoiding Tailstrikes by Boeing
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Presentation Overview Presentation Overview •Tail strike statistics as of 2003 •Engineering/procedural improvements & general information •Human factors review of a 2003 tail strike •Review causes and prevention •Future strategy for tail strike prevention •Training recommendations •Summary

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Baghdad A300 Incident
Additional Info:

Baghdad A300 Incident Discussion DHL flight hit by missile in BAGHDAD

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Blended Winglets
Additional Info:

Adding Blended Winglets to an existing aircraft fleet provides some interesting challenges during the transition period from having no winglets installed to having winglets installed on all of the aircraft. The 737NG aircraft with winglets was flight-tested to establish the new level of performance due to the change in drag characteristics. The performance data for this new performance level is provided by Boeing through the normal Flight Operations Engineering publications and software. Blended

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Blended Winglets 2
Additional Info:

From an engineering point of view— and ultimately that of mission capability and operating economics—the main purpose and direct benefit of winglets are reduced airplane drag.

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Bound Recovery and Rejected Landing Techniques
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A rejected landing (also referred to as an aborted landing) is defined as a go-around maneuver initiated after touchdown of the main landing gear or after bouncing. Although a rare occurrence, a rejected landing is a challenging maneuver decided and conducted in an unanticipated and unprepared manner. The

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Brake Energy Consideration In Flight Operation
Additional Info:

Brake energy limitations may not be common for most operators, and so are not well understood •Certification of brakes has changed significantly in recent years •Misconceptions about brake energy abound •Incidents associated with high brake energy continue to occur… •Brake energy limitations may not be common for most operators, and so are not well understood •Certification of brakes has changed significantly in recent years •Misconceptions about brake energy abound •Incidents associated with high brake energy continue to occur… A more detailed look at the subject is warranted.

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Calculating Errors
Additional Info:

Check out this article on how you can calculate your risk and prevent accidents.

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Caution Lightning
Additional Info:

The earth normally carries a negative charge compared to the atmosphere. When a thunderstorm passes overhead, however, the negative charge in the cloud repels the negative charge on the ground, as the two like ends of a magnet. This act ion leaves a wide surface area with a strong positive charge, which follows the thundercloud like a shadow.

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Center of Gravity Limits
Additional Info:

Look at how Boeing discovers Center of Gravity Limits

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Circle To Land At High and Hot Altitude Airports
Additional Info:

This study has shown that the published procedure may not be adequate at high altitude, but also at high temperature.

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Cognitive Engineering Analysis Of VNAV
Additional Info:

Each new generation of aircraft has increasing levels of flight deck automation that have improved the safety and efficiency of airline operations (Funk, 1977). The full potential of these technologies has not been fully realized however. A case in point is the potential to improve operations during the workload-intensive descent and approach phases of flight (BASI, 1999, pg 143). The Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function of the Flight Management System (FMS) serves as an intelligent agent during these phases by automatically selecting appropriate targets (e.g. altitude, speed, and vertical speed) and pitch/thrust control modes to satisfy the objectives of each leg of the flightplan. This decision-making logic is complex (Sherry & Polson, 1999; Javaux, 2000) and has raised several sets of human factors related concerns (Sarter, Woods & Billings, 1997; Federal Aviation Administration, 1996; Air Transport Association, 1999; BASI, 1999).

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Cold Weather Ops by Airbus
Additional Info:

The Fuel System will trigger low temperature alerts when the fuel in the tanks is colder than certain temperature thresholds.

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Communicate Positively with your Passengers
Additional Info:

Regardless of a pilot's personal feeling about delivering announcements, they are a very important part of your job. Your PAX and their satisfaction is of the utmost importance. You must take the time to look through their eyes. Keeping your passengers in the loop is a key element of delivering good service - and it also pays the important dividend of putting at ease those of your passengers who may have some anxiety about flying.

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Conducting Effective Briefings
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The importance of briefing techniques often is underestimated, although effective briefings contribute to enhance crew standardization and communication.

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Contaminated and Slippery Runways
Additional Info:

If the contaminants are lying on that portion of the runway where the high speed part of the takeoff roll will occur, it may be appropriate to consider the runway contaminated.

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Continuous Descent Arrivals
Additional Info:

Formal studies have examined this third option. The goal of the studies was to see whether noise and emissions could be reduced through design of RNAV standard arrival routing (STAR) and flight operations procedures. Because much of the noise and emissions are caused by aircraft flying level segments at low altitudes, the concept was to have aircraft continuously descend from cruise altitude to final approach glide slope, if possible. The concept was labeled a continuous descent approach (CDA); however, it more appropriately should be called a continuous descent arrival.

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Coping With Long range Flying
Additional Info:

This document provides a practical set of recommendations for the use of longrange crewmembers: – alertness decrement, – sleep, – napping, – life hygiene.

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Cosmic Radiations
Additional Info:

Ionizing radiation is also produced — but carefully controlled for useful benefits — by medical X-ray examinations, industrial products and pharmaceuticals for medical treatments and diagnostics.

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Cost Index Savings
Additional Info:

COST INDEX is the driver of the FMS flight plan optimisation. AirSavings calculates it.

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Crosswind Landings Technique
Additional Info:

Crosswind Landing Techniques by Boeing!

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Decision Making
Additional Info:

Human decision making is a complex process that is strongly dependent on the environment in which the decision must be made. We all make decisions every day, such as the choice of what to have for breakfast or which road to take when driving to work. The extent to which safety considerations enter our decision making depends on the situation. Choosing cereal or bread for breakfast involves virtually no consideration of safety. Selecting a route to drive may involve some aspects of safety but is probably primarily based on travel time and, perhaps, scenery.

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De-Icing and Anti-Icing Fluids
Additional Info:

Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) established by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) prohibit takeoff when frost, ice, or snow adheres to airplane wings, propellers, or control surfaces. This is known as the clean airplane concept. The FARs also prohibit takeoff any time that frost, ice, or snow can reasonably be expected to adhere to the airplane, unless the operator has an approved ground deicing/anti-icing program that includesholdover timetables. In addition, the holdover times must be supported by data acceptable to the FAA. Holdover time is generally considered the time from when deicing or anti-icing fluid is applied and when it begins to fail (that is, when frost, ice, or snow beginsto accumulate or readhere to a surface after deicing, anti-icing, or both).

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Derated Climb Performance
Additional Info:

Aircraft are designed to meet performance targets at maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) including takeoff field length and climb time / distance to cruise altitude. At takeoff, engine failure has to be considered; engine failure on a four-engine aircraft results in 25% loss of thrust, but on a twin- engine aircraft 50% of thrust is lost. Typically the engines on twin-engine aircraft are sized to meet takeoff targets, but the engines of four-engine aircraft are sized to meet climb time/distance targets. As a result, twin-engine aircraft tend to have better climb performance than fourengine aircraft.

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Descent and Approach Profile Management
Additional Info:

To prevent delay in initiating the descent and to ensure an optimum management of descent-and-approach profile, descent preparation and approach briefings should be initiated when pertinent data have been received (e.g ATIS, …), and completed before the top-of-descent (typically 10 minutes before).

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Determination of Dispatch Takeoff Weight
Additional Info:

Intent of this presentation: 1)Review the main components contributing to an aircraft’s takeoff weight 2)Review applicable FAA and JAR-OPS 1 guidance and requirements for determining the weight of everything on-board an aircraft 3)Summarize common methods used by airlines for determining the weight of everything on-board an aircraft (based on results of informal survey responded to by 22 airlines)

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Discipline in Aviation
Additional Info:

The article also demonstrates that poor discipline is the direct result of attitudes that may lead a pilot to deviate from Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). It also describes defenses and controls for these attitudes that will enable flight crews to enhance flight safety through improved personal discipline.

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Driftdown and Oxygen Procedures Over High Terrain
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British Airways Driftdown and Oxygen Procedure.

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Economic Impact of Derated Climb on Large Commercial Engines
Additional Info:

In order to gain an understanding of the economic impact of climb derate several wide body aircraft were examined, including both twin-engine and four-engine configurations. Mission analyses were performed at maximum and derated climb thrust with maximum passenger loads at 3,000 nm ranges for long-range applications and 800 nm for short-range applications. The passenger loads and ranges were selected to produce TOGW’s consistent with operation at takeoff thrust derate levels typically used in service.

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Effect Of Zero Fuel Weight On Aircraft Operations
Additional Info:

Effect Of Zero Fuel Weight On Aircraft Operations by Airbus

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Engine Ignition Selection
Additional Info:

Engine Ignition Selection by Airbus

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Engine Operation and Malfunctions
Additional Info:

The purpose of this text is to provide straightforward material to give flight crews the basics of airplane engine operational theory. This text will also provide pertinent information about malfunctions that may be encountered during the operation of turbofan- powered airplanes, especially those malfunctions that cannot be simulated well and may thus cause confusion.

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Engine Power Loss In Ice Crystal Conditions
Additional Info:

engine power­loss events have occurred in three phases of flight: climb, cruise, and descent. However, most events occur during the descent phase, most likely because of a combination of two factors. First, for icing to occur, the ambient temperature must be below the freezing level, and therefore icing tends to occur at the higher altitude associated with the descent phase. Second, the engine is least tolerant to ice shedding at idle power, which occurs in the descent phase. icing at high power and high altitude is possible due to the existence of high concentrations of ice crystals for long distances, such as in the anvil of a large convective storm, and the fact that ice can build up on warm engine surfaces.

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Engines Thrust Loss
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The “ENGTHRUSTLOSS” caution is triggered during the takeoff roll (before 80 knots) in the following conditions:

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Enhanced Reduced Thrust At Takeoff
Additional Info:

Enhanced Reduced Thrust at takeoff New Derated and Flexible Takeoff Thrust for up to 40% thrust reduction. Flexible take-off thrust is currently limited down to typically 75% of the full rated take-off thrust

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Erroneous Takeoff Speeds
Additional Info:

Boeing has identified some guidelines to reduce the likelihood of error while calculating takeoff reference speeds.

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Exceeding Tire Speed During Takeoff
Additional Info:

To avoid a tire-speed-limit exceedance, Boeing recommends to conservatively account for the tailwind component when dispatching at or near the tire-speed-limit weight in a crosswind situation. General guidelines for crosswind takeoffs are outlined in the FCTM. These guidelines include the recommendation to use a higher thrust setting than the minimum required in order to minimize airplane expo sure to gusty conditions during rotation, liftoff, and initial climb.

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Explaining Leadership and Followership
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The cockpit system structures in our model include the external environment, the climate and structure of the cockpit, individual attributes, and the roles and responsibilities of the crew members. These various factors are acknowledged and attended to through effective communications.

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Flex and Derate Takeoff and Climb
Additional Info:

Each derate level is certified and is associated to a new set of performance data

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Flight Crew Briefing
Additional Info:

It can be argued that the single, most important briefing is the crew briefing since it may set the tone for the entire flight. However, this assertion is not universally accepted.

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Flight In severe Turbulence
Additional Info:

Lets go over Severe Turbulence.

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Flying Stabilized Approaches
Additional Info:

In 75% of the off-runway touchdown, tail strike or runway excursion/overrun accidents, the major cause was an unstable approach.

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Freezing Rain as an In Flight Icing Hazard
Additional Info:

It is well known that exposure to supercooled large drops (SLD – subfreezing water droplets with diameters greater than ~50 microns) can pose a significant threat to the safety of some aircraft. Although, by definition, SLD includes both freezing drizzle (FZDZ) and freezing rain (FZRA), much of the SLD research and development of operational SLD forecast tools has focused on FZDZ and ignored FZRA, regarding it as less of a hazard to aviation (e.g. McCann 1997). This mindset is primarily based on a few published FZRA encounters by one research aircraft where the resulting ice accretion was rather smooth, conformed to the airfoil and did not appear to cause a significant degradation in aircraft performance (Ashenden and Marwitz, 1997).

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Fuel Conservation Strategies - Cost Index Explained
Additional Info:

This article is the first in a series exploring fuel conservation strategies.

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Fuel Conservation Strategies : Cruise Flight
Additional Info:

Cruise flight is the phase of flight that falls between climb and descent. the largest percentages of trip time and trip fuel are consumed typically in this phase of flight. As an aside, unanticipated low altitude maneuvering, which also impacts trip time and fuel significantly, can often be avoided through appropriate cruise planning.

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Fuel Conservation Strategies : Descent and Approach
Additional Info:

This article is the fourth and final in a series exploring fuel conservation strategies. It discusses strategies for saving fuel during the descent and approach phases of flight. The first article in this series, “Cost Index Explained,” appeared in the second-quarter 2007 aero. It was followed by “Cruise Flight” in the fourth-quarter 2007 issue and “Takeoff and Climb” in the fourth-quarter 2008 issue.

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Fuel Conservation Strategies : Takeoff and Climb
Additional Info:

this article discusses strategies for fuel savings during the takeoff and climb phases of flight. Subse quent articles in this series will deal with the descent, approach, and landing phases of flight, as well as auxiliary­power­unit usage strategies. the first article in this series, “cost index explained,” appeared in the second­quarter 2007 AERO. it was followed by “cruise Flight” in the fourth­quarter 2007 issue.

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Fuel Filter Contamination
Additional Info:

Fuel contamination can take many forms, but the result is often the same: a fuel filter bypass indication that may cause delays if the pilot elects to return to ground or divert to have the fuel filter inspected or replaced. This article addresses contamination of the engine fuel filter. .

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Fuel Management
Additional Info:

Boeing publication reviewing during the 2006 Operators Symposium all the possible solutions to manage fuel consumption.

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Getting to Grips to Aircraft Noise
Additional Info:

The operational context linked to noise restrictions calls for various and numerous notions related to sound theory. Obviously it is not the purpose of this book to drown the readers in an enumeration of “barbaric” and daunting equations. Consequently, and for the sake of an easy reading, the main body of this document is dedicated to the operational context. The second part of the brochure acts as a technically detailed inventory of notions and quantities linked to sound theory, where the sought information can quickly be located with the help of the index at the end of the booklet.

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Getting to Grips With Aircraft Performance
Additional Info:

The safety of air transportation is a joint effort, regulated by the State on one hand, and practiced by the manufacturers, airlines and Air Traffic Controllers (ATC), on the other hand. The State is responsible for the supervision of civil aviation, to ensure that a high safety standard is maintained throughout the industry, and its primary means of enforcement is via the establishment and administration of written regulations. The control process encompasses a fixed set of rules to secure that all aircraft respect a minimum level of performance, which thereby leads to the definition of limitations.

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Getting To Grips With CATII and CATIII
Additional Info:

Getting To Grips With CATII and CATIII by Airbus

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Getting To Grips With Cold Weather Operations
Additional Info:

Atmospheric physics and meteorology tell us that icing conditions generally occur from slightly positive °C down to -40 °C and are most likely around FL100. Nevertheless, it should be understood that if severe icing rarely occurs below -12 °C, slightly positive OATs do not protect from icing and that icing conditions can be potentially met at any FL.

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Getting To Grips With Fatigue and Alertness Management
Additional Info:

This document provides a practical set of recommendations for the use of longrange crewmembers

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Getting To Grips With Fuel Economy
Additional Info:

Fuel Consumption is a major cost to any airline, and airlines need to focus their attention on this in order to maintain their profitability. This brochure looks at all the significant operating variables that affect fuel economy for the current Airbus range of aircraft. This brochure shows that there are many factors that affect fuel consumption and that the potential gains and losses are huge. Most of these factors are directly controlled by the airlines own employees (flight crew, operations/dispatch, maintenance, etc.).

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Getting To Grips With Perfomance Monitoring
Additional Info:

The purpose of this brochure is to provide airline flight operations with some recommendations on the way to regularly monitor their aircraft performance. This brochure was designed to provide guidelines for aircraft performance monitoring based on the feedback obtained from many operators and on the knowledge of Airbus aircraft and systems

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Getting To Grips With The Cost Index
Additional Info:

The idea behind this document is to revisit the cost index concept with a view towards balancing both fuel- and time-related costs.

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Getting To Grips With Weight and Balance
Additional Info:

Airbus aircraft are designed for passenger civil air transport with a passenger cabin on the upper deck. The lower deck of the airplane is dedicated to passenger luggage as well as additional freight transportation. So at the end of the 60s, the A300 was originally designed to accommodate, with a semi-automatic, electrically powered cargo loading system, the Unit Load Devices that were already standardized at that time for the B747, considering that the cargo area was too great for it to be loaded manually. This solution was later used for to all the other longrange programs. On the single aisle family two cargo loading solutions are proposed to the operators either manual bulk loading or semi-automatic, electrically powered cargo loading system accommodating Unit Load Devices derived from the larger aircraft ULDs. The following chapter describes the cargo loading areas on Airbus aircraft and the systems related to cargo holds.

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Glasscockpit Transition
Additional Info:

This special issue of Flight Safety Digest presents two reports on the experiences of pilots who fly aircraft with “glass cockpits” — that is, modern aircraft with highly automated flight management systems and electronic flight instrument systems. The reports sample the views of line pilots regarding the advantages and disadvantages of flying these advanced-technology aircraft.

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Handling an emergency
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In the preflight briefing, the captain assigns which pilot will fly, who talks to ATC, who runs the checklist(s), etc. A suddenly dark cockpit at night in IMC is not the time to figure out who is doing what. Having a plan for an immediate return and landing, considering minimum safe altitudes, navaids available, and any special engine-out procedures that apply. One technique is to have an approach set up on the pilot-not-flying side (if that nav system isn't needed to fly the departure) in case of an immediate return.

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Handling Engine Malfunctions
Additional Info:

The failure rate of aircraft engines has reached an all-time low. This means that many flight crews will never face an engine failure during their career, other than those in the flight simulator. However, simulators are not fully representative of engine failures because accelerations (e.g. due to a failed engine), noise (e.g. caused by an engine stall), or vibrations (e.g. in the event of a blade rupture) are hard to simulate. Consequently, flight crews are not always able to identify and understand engine malfunctions. Incorrect crew understanding of engine malfunctions can lead to unnecessary engine shutdowns, but also to incidents and accidents. .

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Hazards Of Flight In Heavy Rain
Additional Info:

Research has shown that the mass of any water film that accumulates on the surface of an aircraft increases the weight, of a typical large transport aircraft, by no more than about 1 %; this is largely insignificant. Raindrops striking an aircraft lose momentum on impact and in a torrential downpour, of 500 mm/hr for 20 seconds, can theoretically cause a 4 kt loss of airspeed for a Boeing 747 in cruise configuration. The effect in the approach configuration is unknown but likely to be greater.

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High Altitude Handling
Additional Info:

Center of gravity (CG) and altitude significantly affect the longitudinal stability of an airplane. An understanding of handling characteristics at various CG positions and altitudes permits flight crews to use proper control inputs when manually flying throughout the flight envelope. In addition to being fast, quiet, and comfortable, modern commercial airplanes are also aerodynamically efficient. For example, all Boeing transport models use wing sweep to minimize high-speed cruise drag. This allows airplanes to cruise at higher Mach numbers before reaching the critical Mach number at which shock waves begin to form on the wing and drag rises significantly.

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How To Deal With A Fire in flight
Additional Info:

Aircraft manufacturers and the airline industry should, in addition, ensure that their smoke/fire checklists are as simple as possible, (besides ensuring adequate legislation/training/fire detection/ protection, etc. are as up to date and efficient as possible). Our associations world wide should continue to pressure these organizations to conduct extensive research into this problem so the future of our industry and the lives involved are protected.

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How to Make Go-Arounds Safer
Additional Info:

Capt Bertrand de Courville. Corporate Safety Department . Air France

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Human Factors Aspects In Incidents and Accidents
Additional Info:

Ultimately, human factors are involved in all incidents and accidents.

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Human Factors Considerations for Performance Based Navigation
Additional Info:

RNAV and RNP are seen as key enabling factors in improving the efficiency and capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS).

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Human Factors Report Propulsion System Malfunction Plus Inappropriate Crew Response
Additional Info:

Flight Safety Digest by Flight Safety Foundation

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Hurry Up Syndrom
Additional Info:

Take your time!

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Identifying Possible Risk Of Hearing Loss
Additional Info:

Hearing loss has a variety of causes, some of them hereditary, some a result of disease and some a normal part of the ageing process. For pilots - and for people in many other occupations the risk of hearing loss is compounded by repeated on-the-job exposure to noise, as well as by exposure to loud noises during off-duty hours.

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Inflight Airplane Vibration
Additional Info:

Modern commercial jet airplanes provide smooth, comfortable travel that typically is free of vibration. Some types of vibration can be expected from time to time and are considered normal. However, isolated cases of abnormal vibration require prompt flight crew response and subsequent timely maintenance action.

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Insidious Ice
Additional Info:

Basic physics makes slippery-runway issues crystal clear!

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Jet Engines Basics
Additional Info:

Jet Engines basics developped and published by Boeing. A very well illustratated document!

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Jet Fuel Characteristics
Additional Info:

This document provides a brief introduction to aviation fuel definitions and characteristics, familiarizes you with terminology and industry jargon,addresses operational concerns related to fuel, and exchanges some insight into the energy of flight.

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Landing on Contaminated Runways
Additional Info:

Landing on Contaminated Runways involves increased levels of risk related to deceleration and directional control. Aircraft Landing Performance data takes account of the deceleration issues in scheduling the Landing Distance Required (LDR), and the Aircraft Limitations specified in the AFM can be expected to impose a reduced maximum crosswind limitation. Operator Procedures may further restrict all such operations, or impose flight crew-specific restrictions or requirements. Despite all procedural precautions, contaminated runway landings are a rare event for most flight crews and although this serves to ensure a full focus on the task, the lack of real experience, and the limited ability to create realistic scenarios in most simulators, means that a full understanding of the issues involved can be an additional safeguard.

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Landing On Slippery Runways
Additional Info:

Boeing has recently published a well illustrated document specific to landing on slippery runways. This document reviews available landing data, certified data, QRH adisory data and many other topics.

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Landing Overruns
Additional Info:

This Boeing document is a review of the events leading to, and lessons learnt from the over-run of Quantas B747-400 at Bangkok Thailand, September 23, 1999.

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Let's Be Careful During Visual Approaches
Additional Info:

The Flight Safety Foundation Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Task Force found that visual approaches were being conducted in 41 percent of 118 fatal approach-andlanding accidents worldwide in 1980 through 1996

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Loss Of Control Returning From Beyond The Envelope
Additional Info:

To reduce loss of control accidents, the U.S. government has funded a program to provide airplane-upset-recovery training for 2,000 airline pilots. The training is conducted in an aerobatic single-engine airplane and in a multi-engine jet modified as a variable-stability in-flight simulator.

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Low Fuel temperatures
Additional Info:

Basics, principles of operations and a new software tool for operational predictions

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Managing Uneven Brake Temperatures
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Operators typically purchase twin-aisle airplanes for long-distance flights. However, when market conditions dictate, operators may use some of these airplanes on shorter flights. In such instances, appropriate action by the flight crew can reduce the likelihood of brake overheating and concomitant departure delays.

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Maximum Altitude Operations
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The maximum altitude at which an airplane can be flown is limited by three factors: 1) the maximum certified altitude 2) the buffet-limited maximum altitude 3) the thrust-limited maximum altitude. The most limiting of these three altitudes defines the maximum operating altitude...

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Models of Threat Error and CRM in Flight Operations
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Issues in Crew Resource Management (CRM) are discussed, including its definition and primary goals of recognizing and managing threat and error. CRM is a component of an organization’s safety efforts and must be driven by valid data on operational issues. Data requirements for a safety culture include proactive information on crew behavior. The use of non-jeopardy, Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) to document threat, error, and crew behavior in line operations is discussed. Models of threat and error in the aviation system are presented, based on LOSA data from three airlines.

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Models of Threat Error and CRM in Flight Operations
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Issues in Crew Resource Management (CRM) are discussed, including its definition and primary goals of recognizing and managing threat and error. CRM is a component of an organization’s safety efforts and must be driven by valid data on operational issues. Data requirements for a safety culture include proactive information on crew behavior. The use of non-jeopardy, Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) to document threat, error, and crew behavior in line operations is discussed. Models of threat and error in the aviation system are presented, based on LOSA data from three airlines.

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Narrow Runway Operations
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Boeing asks a very simple question: "how narrow is narrow?"

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Operation With Minimum Fuel
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A very interesting and detailed technical article issued by Airbus.

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Operations In Mountainous Areas
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One of the very best documents published on a very sensitive operational topic.

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Overweight Landing What to Consider
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An overweight landing is defined as a landing made at a gross weight in excess of the maximum design (i.e., structural) landing weight for a particular model. A pilot may consider making an overweight landing when a situation arises that requires the airplane to return to the takeoff airport or divert to another airport soon after takeoff. In these cases, the airplane may arrive at the landing airport at a weight considerably above the maximum design landing weight. The pilot must then decide whether to reduce the weight prior to landing or land overweight. The weight can be reduced either by holding to burn off fuel or by jettisoning fuel. There are important issues to consider when a decision must be made to land overweight, burn off fuel, or jettison fuel (when possible).

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Performance Margins
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When an aircraft is dispatched in accordance with certification and operational regulations, there are some inherent margins included in the calculated takeoff and landing performance. Although it is not permitted to take advantage of these margins in order to increase the aircraft performance limit weight, it is of interest to be aware of the magnitude of these margins.

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Physiological Concerns of Heat
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The mercury's rising, summer's promise is becoming a reality and you're looking forward to some relaxed flying in the lazy, hazy months. In anticipation of summer, flight crews brush up on an assortment of operating concerns, but often ignored is how the human body performs in our thermal environment. High ambient temperatures and other performance factors affect it in much the same manner as an aircraft.

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Pilot braking Action Reports
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Pilot braking action reports that are based on reliable assessment procedures and that use the proper terminology are potentially valuable supplements to other runway condition information. The limitations of pilot braking action reports should be understood.

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Pilot Fatigue
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When a pilot becomes tired, problem-solving slows, motor skills degrade and attentiveness is impaired. Many accident-causing human errors are probably the result of pilot fatigue.

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Preparing The Approach In Case Of Engine Failure
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In this briefing, Airbus explains how to determine Landing Distance and approach speed determination in case of an engine failure during approach. It also reviews the case of multiple failures, use of the autopilot and autothrottle. This document contents an exhaustive study on a topic rarely detailed...

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Preventing Altitude Deviations and Level Busts
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This Briefing Note provides an overview of the factors involved in altitude deviations. This document can be used for stand-alone reading or as the basis for the development of an airline’s altitude awareness program.

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Preventing Engine Ingestion Injuries
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History has shown that failure to observe proper safety precautions, such as good communication and awareness of the hazard areas in the vicinity of an operating jet engine, can result in serious injury or death. The risk of ingestion can be prevented with appropriate training and adherence to the safety precautions

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Preventing Hard Nosegear Touchdowns
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In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of significant structural damage to commercial airplanes from hard nosegear touchdowns. In most cases, the main gear touchdowns were relatively normal. The damage resulted from high nose-down pitch rates generated by full or nearly full forward control column application before nosegear touchdown. Flight crews need to be aware of the potential for significant structural damage from hard nosegear contact and know which actions to take to prevent such incidents.

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Principles Of Takeoff Optimization
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How to optimize Takeoff performance? This document has been published by Airbus for the 14th Performance & Operations Conference.

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Protect Your Hearing
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Aviation can be a noisy business that can assault tour ears and chip away at your ability to hear clearly. Prevention is your only effective defense.

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Range of V1
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Boeing goes well beyond the idea that V1 is the speed at which the takeoff should be continued unless the stopping maneuver has already been initiated.

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Recommendations For De Icing and Anti Icing
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Recommendations For De-Icing and Anti-Icing published by the AEA (Association Of European Airlines). The AEA De-icing/Anti-icing Working Group is the European focal point for the continuous development of safe, economical and environmentally friendly standards and procedures for the deicing/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground in conjunction with related international standards

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Reduced Thrust Operations
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Topics of discussion are numerous: benefits of using Reduced Thrust, Methods for Reduced Takeoff Thrust, Regulatory requirements, thrust effect on takeoff performance, assumed temperature method. This is an exhaustive brochure.

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Reducing Flight Operation Cost
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This SAS Braathens document has been published by Boeing during one of its latest symposiums. Once again it is well illustrated and quite interesting to read.

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Reducing the Risk of Runway Excursions
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At the request of several international aviation organizations in late 2006, the Flight Safety Foundation initiated a project entitled Runway Safety Initiative (RSI) to address the challenge of runway safety. This was an international effort with participants representing the full spectrum of stakeholders from the aviation community. The effort initially reviewed the three areas of runway safety: runway incursions, runway confusion, and runway excursions. After a review of current runway safety efforts, specific data on the various aspects of runway safety were obtained. After reviewing the initial data, the RSI Group determined that it would be most effective to focus its efforts on reducing the risk of runway excursions.

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Rejected Landing
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A rejected landing (also referred to as an aborted landing) is defined as a go-around maneuver initiated after touchdown of the main landing gear or after bouncing. Although a rare occurrence, a rejected landing is a challenging maneuver decided and conducted in an unanticipated and unprepared manner...

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Rejected Takeoff On Slippery Runway
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This Flight Safety Foundation produced a very good debriefing of an accident which involved a Tower Air 747 classics on takeoff...

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Review Of Performance Requirements
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Most current performance requirements for the certification and operation of transport category airplanes were established at the beginning of the jet age. Today, operating experience and data provide the most accurate means to further improve the performance requirements of modern transport airplanes.

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Situational Awareness
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This article presents a definition of situational awareness. It explains the complex process of maintaining situational awareness, focuses on how it is lost and proposes prevention and recovery strategies. It is intended to help the reader gain and maintain situational awareness, to prevent falling into the traps associated with its loss and to avoid the negative effects of its loss on flight safety.

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Skin Cancer Prevention
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Flight crews and cabin crews should take precautions against exposure to the ultraviolet rays in sunlight while on airport ramps and during layovers.

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Standard Calls
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Standard phraseology is essential to ensure effective crew communication, particularly in today’s operating environment. Standard calls are intended and designed to enhance the efficiency of crew coordination and update the flightcrew situational awareness (e.g., including aircraft position, altitude, speed, status and operation of aircraft systems,

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Standard Operating Procedures
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Strict adherence to suitable standard operating procedures (SOPs) and normal checklists is an effective method to prevent or mitigate crew errors, anticipate or manage operational threats; and enhance ground / flight operations safety.

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Standard Operating Procedures Compliance
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Adhering to standard operating procedures (SOPs) is a personal quality that can profoundly influence flight safety. This briefing note provides information every pilot should understand about the origin of SOPs and the critical importance of following them unfailingly during operations.

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Stress Fatigue
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Relaxation strategies, including ''sleep hygiene'' regular bedtime rituals that help put the mind at ease are useful for many. And the environment in which sleep takes place can make a large difference, for good or bad. Exercise and diet can also play an important role in obtaining restful sleep.

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Takeoff Speed Determination at Low Weight
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Reminders on Airbus recommendations.

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Takeoff Thrust Setting
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Takeoff Thrust Setting Review for Airbus Operators.

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The Black Hole Approach
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''Black hole'' approaches posed a significant hazard to airlines during the 1970s. Since then, a number of advances - ground proximity warning systems, the successful push to have VASI and ILS systems installed on more air carrier runways, and head-up displays - have greatly reduced the incidence of ''black hole'' approach incidents and accidents among carriers flying large jet aircraft. Pilots of regional airlines, however, typically fly more total approaches, more ''black hole'' approaches, and more approaches to runways without vertical guidance. All pilots may benefit from this review of ''black hole'' approaches - especially the explanation of why pilots may be lured into flying into terrain or obstacles despite having the runway in sight throughout the approach.

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The Migration To Higher Thrust Engines And The Effect On Control Speeds
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For the B777 airplane the growth in engine thrust levels has increased since the original PW4074 engine. This original engine was rated at 74000 pounds of thrust and was envisioned to grow to around 95000 pounds of thrust.

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Threat and Error Management (TEM) in Air Traffic Control
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The m a in obj ective of intr oducing the TEM framework to the Air Traffic Serv ices ( A TS) communit y in general, and the Air Traffic Control (ATC) co mm unit y in particular, is to enhance aviation safety and efficiency.

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Understanding Airplane Turbofan Engine Operation Helps Flight Crews Respond to Malfunctions
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Maintaining aircraft control, diagnosing correctly the engine malfunction and taking appropriate action are the keys to continued safe flight.

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Understanding Ice Accretion
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This document will help you to understand the whole process of ice accretion and the consecutive dangers.

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Understanding Improved Climb
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What is Improved Climb? How is Improved Climb used? Explore in this Boeing document all the operational considerations of "improving" climb performance

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Understanding Takeoff Speeds
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The objective of this Briefing is to provide, from an operational perspective, an overall review of takeoff speeds, and of the factors that affect the calculation and use of V speeds.

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Understanding Takeoff Thrust Setting Technique
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This well-illustrated document to help pilots to understand different takoff thrust setting techniques.

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Understanding The Angle Of Attack (Part1)
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Since the early days of flight, angle of attack (AOA) has been a key aeronautical engineering parameter and is fundamental to understanding many aspects of airplane performance, stability, and control. Virtually any book on these subjects, as well as basic texts and instructional material written for flight crews, defines AOA and discusses its many attributes...

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Understanding The Angle Of Attack (Part2)
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This Boeing article deals again with Angle of attack (AOA) which is an aerodynamic parameter that is key to understanding the limits of airplane performance. Recent accidents and incidents have resulted in new flight crew training programs, which in turn have raised interest in AOA in commercial aviation. Awareness of AOA is vitally important as the airplane nears stall. It is less useful to the flight crew in the normal operational range. On most Boeing models currently in production, AOA information is presented in several ways: stick shaker, airspeed tape, and pitch limit indicator. Boeing has also developed a dedicated AOA indicator integral to the flight crew’s primary flight displays.

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Understanding Winglets Technology
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Another well detailed document explaining the winglets philosophy.

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Unruly Passengers
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Unruly passenger behavior continues to be one of the biggest issues facing airlines and the severity of the problem continues to increase. Although much has been said about dealing with these cases there has been little reference to the causes.

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V1 and GO No Go Decision
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This Boeing document reviews the importance of V1, statistics of past Rejected Takeoff (RTO) accidents and incidents and tries to provide an appropriate education for a better

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Volcanic Ash Avoidance
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A commercial aircraft encounter with volcanic Ash can threaten safety of flight because of resulting conditions that can range from windshield pitting to loss of thrust in all engines. Developments in technology and communication networks have significantly decreased the probability of such an encounter in the last several years. Despite these developments, however, a 737-700 recently flew through a volcanic ash cloud. Updated information about advancements in ensuring safe operations and minimizing damage to the airplane during a volcanic ash encounter is now available to flight crews.

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Vortex Generators
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The Vortex Generators have been installed and utilized on most of commercial aircraft to enhance flying qualities, but each application has its own story...

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Wake Turbulence The Invisible Danger
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Turbulence has been known since the early days of aviation. The introduction of wide-body aircraft and the wake turbulence associated with their heavy weights, an increase of air traffic and safety concerns, prompted industry and government interest. Much investigation and analysis was done by Boeing and other agencies in the 1960s and 1970s. It was during this time when some ground rules, or to be more precise, air rules were established so that this usually invisible hazard could be avoided. What are the wake turbulence issues is one of questions asked in this very interesting Airliner document

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Wet Runway (Physics Certfication and Application)
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What is a Wet runway? Ask around you and you should be surprised of some answers. This Boeing document explains the hidden side of the wet runway concept...

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What Makes A Pilot Street Smart About Flying
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By street smart, we mean: awareness of the essential aspects of flying; ability to know where and when to find critical information; ability to detect and compensate for the mistakes of others; ability to avoid the subtle traps and pitfalls found in the flying environment; and ability to complete a 30-year career without any accidents or serious incidents.

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What were they thinking
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When flights go smoothly, pilots’ minds tend to wander, study finds.

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Whiteout!
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White sky and white ground, no shadow and no horizon set you up for CFIT

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Wingtip Devices
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Wingtip Devices: what they do and how they do it. A Boeing aerodynamist explains in very simple words what is hidden between "induced drag reduction", "vortex", "winglets" and so on.

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Words Than Can Be Hazardous To Your Health
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Miscommunication arising from spoken interaction is a fact of life experienced, in one form or another, almost daily. Even two people speaking face-to-face, ostensibly in the same language, with a common background in the subject of the communication, frequently discover that what was meant was not what was understood. In casual discussion or routine business situations, the results of such miscommunication can range from amusement to expensive errors. But in aviation, the outcome of spoken miscommunication can be deadly. In no area is this more true than in pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) interaction.